講演者: Dr. Yung-Ching Hsu (National Taiwan University)
日時: 2019年7月12日(水) 17:00-18:00
場所: 京都大学文系学部校舎4階人社未来形発信ユニットセミナー室（UKIHSS II）
Freedom of Mencius’ Theory of Human Nature
Mencius considers that both human beings and all things on earth originated from heaven and that all things on earth follow certain rules while animals other than human beings follow their instincts for their lives. As human beings possess the freedom of choice, it also causes stress for such behavior. Having the awareness of clear directions for moral demand in the heart (heart of four beginnings: heart of compassion, heart of shame, heart of modesty and yielding and heart of right and wrong), human beings could choose to avoid or accept the heart of four beginnings and do specific good deeds. Human beings consist of body (physical body) and the heart (moral self). While bodies are needed for human beings, the heart is relevantly important. To think is the function of the heart. With thinking comes the self-awareness of four moral demands from the heart as it brings the power for implementation. When it comes to behaviors, human beings have the freedom of choice so that they could decide their words and actions. It also means that due to the freedom, human beings could make mistakes. Only sincerity could make one a real human, or they are just playing a role in the society. That is why Mencius mentioned that without the heart of four beginnings, it is “not human.” Without sincerity to show the heart of four beginnings so as to generate the power to motivate good deeds, the “heart” of four beginnings would be seen as not existing, and the elements for “self” would be lost. The process of struggling as human beings choose to do good deeds or not reveals the tension in between the self and the freedom.