日時: 2019年7月18日(木) 16:00-18:00
場所: 京都大学文系学部校舎4階人社未来形発信ユニットセミナー室（UKIHSS II）
講演者: Prof. San Tun (Dhammaduta Chekinda University)
“No Self” with Consequence and Responsibility
The aim of this research is to provide philosophy of self and other based on some Buddhist literatures which are cultural phenomena of Myanmar Theravāda Buddhist tradition. The research question is “Why the concepts of self and other are not ontological realities in Myanmar Theravāda Buddhist culture?” It is because that there are “no self” and “no other” in Abhidhamma literature, Buddhist Philosophy, but only mind and body are ontological realities. For Socrates, the goal of philosophy is to “Know thyself”. Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching, said that knowing others is wisdom and knowing the self is enlightenment. For Nishida Kitaro, the experience of unification of consciousness of subject and object is the experience of pure consciousness. It is pure experience and there are no independent, self-sufficient facts apart from our phenomena of consciousness; as Berkeley said, “Esse est percipi” (to be is to be perceived). Nishida holds that direct reality is not something passive. For him, to be is not only to be perceived but also to act for the development of personality. Hence he says, “To be is to act.”
By the principle of conditional relation, every phenomenon is conditional. Good conduct is a kind of conduct that derives from conditional activity of the phenomena of pure consciousness or pure mind. In the Dhammapada (verse 2), what the Buddha taught is; “Mind is the forerunner of activities. Mind is chief. If one speaks or acts with pure mind (pure cetanā), because of that, happiness follows one, even as one’s shadow that never leaves.” For this reason, it can be said that “Know your cetanā” and “To be is to act with pure cetanā to the others”. Knowing others is wisdom of development of mental cultivation through pure cetanā associated with loving-kindness (mettā), compassion (karunā), empathetic joy (muditā), and equanimity (upekkhā), and knowing pure mind (pure cetanā) is enlightenment. This means to understand why people should act ethically although there is no self and no other and how there can be consequence and responsibility by their cetanā (intention), a mental reality as well as mental force called kamma or action.
講演者: Prof. Chien-hsing Ho (Academia Sinica)
Can the World Be Indeterminate in All Respects?
A number of analytical philosophers have recently endorsed the view that the world itself is indeterminate in some respect. The issue then arises as to whether it can be the case that the world itself is indeterminate in all respects. Using as a basis Chinese Madhyamaka Buddhist thought, I develop an underlying conceptual framework for my conception of worldly indeterminacy and offer three reasons in support of the thesis that all things are indeterminate with respect to the ways they are. My aim is to show that this thesis makes sense, and that there is a genuine possibility of the world’s being indeterminate in all respects.